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Friday, July 3, 2009

Don Blas de Lezo





Cartagena was the focus of trade between South America and the rest of the world thanks to its position on the Caribbean and deep-water harbour; gold and silver plundered from the Incas were transported back to Spain from here, in annual convoys. Other European nations knew this, and pirates and buccaneers from France and England had sacked and looted Cartagena on previous occasions; Robert Baal in 1544, Martin Cote in 1569, and Sir Francis Drake in 1586. In each instance, building were destroyed in addition to huge ransoms being extracted, so the resident Governor, using local merchants’ money, started building a fort in the 17th century. The most imposing structure in Cartagena became the trapezoid-shaped Castillo de San Felipe de Barajas. It has no vertical walls, and was designed to deflect cannon balls much like the Stealth Bomber deflects radar. The fort was completed in 1654, and though continually improved and strengthened in ensuing years, Cartagena was taken again by the French Pirates de Pointis and Ducasse in 1697. This was the most devastating attack in Cartagena’s history.

In the 1700’s, friction between
Spain and England grew after the English captain of the Rebecca, Robert Jenkins, had his ear severed by the Spanish customs officer Juan Leon Fandino, as punishment for smuggling transgressions in Florida. Jenkins was told a similar fate was in store for the English King shuld he visit. When news of this reached England, Sir Edward Vernon, member of Parliament, and Prime Ministerial aspirant, was enraged and persuaded Parliament to declare war on Spain in1739. He was made an Admiral and give mandate to attack Spanish dominions. After conquering Portobelo, a smaller fortress-town in what is now Panama, with only six warships, Vernon boasted that he could take Cartagena and all its riches for England’s Exchequer.

Vernon was able to secure funding to assemble a massive fleet for his venture: 180 ships. Over 2000 cannon and more than 28.000 men. Earlier sackings of Cartagena had been sucesfull with as few as 1000 men. Some of the 2700 men were recruited in the North American Colonies, under the command of an officer named Lawrence Washington, a half-brother of George Washington. Vernon also enlisted 2000 Jamaican macheteros. Cartagena’s defences were minuscules in comparison: 3000 soldiers, some native Indian archers and six ships and their crew. But Vernon’s gathering of such a large force proved impossible to keep secret, and Cartagena was well prepared for attack when Vernon’s fleet arrived at 9am on 13 MARCH 1741. The fort was riddled with tunnels and storage areas, in which the Spanish stockpiled enough arms and food to sustain the populace during a prolonged attack. The Viceroy Sebastian de Eslava and Don Blas de Lezo were in charge of defence, but they were seriously outnumbered. Cartagena’s population was only 20,000, with fewer than 6000 men under arms.

Vernon landed men on Isla Tierrabomba and after firing thousands of rounds of shells on the smaller Castillo de san Luis. The entry to the bay was guarded by escolleras. Or shallow, man made underwater breakwaters, and a heavy chain that could be drawn across the entrance between the two forts. But the English were able to breach then and launched a prolonged attack by firing for 16 days and nights, at an average of 62 rounds an hour? Too much for Don blas and his Colonel de Naux to sustain for long. In a vain attempt to prevent Vernon’s entry, the Spaniards sank their last remaining ships at the harbour entrance. Don Blas was at the front line of action, and was wounded in his thigh and only arm, and was forced to retreat to the walled city. Vernon entered the harbour, sent Washington, and the North Americans to take the convento de la Popa on the hill overlooking San Felipe, and launched a barrage of artillery that street was slowly crumbling Cartagena. Confident that Victory was his, hi sent a message to England that Cartagena was about to fall. The English autorities, on receiving this advice, minted commemorative victory coins.

Yet Don Blas’ men refused to surrender. Held up in the fort, they repulsed attack after attack. The Bay of Cartagena was filled with bodies of the enemy: injuries, malaria, dysentry and scurvy were beginning to fell the English. Don Blas was a veteran himself of sity-seige tactics. The Jamaican machete wielding slaves led the assault, followed by the English artillery, both of whom were easy targets for the Spanish from their lofty positions. The attack was repelled, and Don Blas seized an opportunity, ordering his remaining 600 men into a do-or-die bayonet charge counter attack, that left 800 English dead, 1000 taken prisoner, and Vernon’s ships full of sick and wounded. It was Cartagena’s finest hour.

Vernon’s aspirations of one day being Prime Minister of England as declinated, he has lost 18.000men, about half due to diseases, the rest to Spanish military superiority. Five ships of the English fleet were burnt at sea for lack of sailors to sail them home. It never allowed the details of this embarrassing defeat be published. Vernon’s efforts are also remembered in the USA- Lawrence Washington named his family estate Mount Vernon in his honour. Today, Cartagena’s population is approaching one million, and welcomes foreign naval vessels for the tourist dollars or Euros they bring. Spain is no longer the colonial master, and no gold is shipped in convoys. The man is brandishing a sword in his left arm, because he lost his right arm in the Battle of Barcelona; minus one leg lost in the Battle of Gibraltar; and wearing an eye patch covering his left eye lost in the Battle of Toulon. This same man lost his life in the Battle for Cartagena, the last of his 23 campaigns. This man is Don Blas de Lezo.

Don Blas de Lezo
Cartagena era el foco del comercio entre Sur América y el resto del mundo gracias a su posición en el Caribe y su honda bahía; oro y plata proveniente de los Incas era transportado hacia España, anualmente en caravanas. Otras naciones Europeas sabían esto, y piratas y bucaneros de Francia e Inglaterra han asaltado y robado Cartagena en previas ocasiones; Robert Baal en 1544, Martin Cote en 1569, y Sir Francis Drake en 1586. A cada oportunidad, las edificaciones fueron destruidas, además de grandes rescates obtenidos, por eso el Gobernador residente, obtuvo dinero de los comerciantes locales para construir un fuerte en el siglo XVII. La más imponente estructura en Cartagena es el trapezoide Castillo San Felipe de Barajas. No tiene muros verticales, y ha sido diseñado para repeler las balas de cañón como el Stealth Bomber repele el radar.
El fuerte se terminó en 1654, y desde entonces continuamente mejorado y fortalecido durante los siguientes años. Cartagena fue asaltada nuevamente por el Pirata Francés de Pointis y Ducasse en 1697. Este fue el más devastador ataque en la historia de Cartagena.
En 1700, creció la fricción entre España e Inglaterra después de que el capitán Inglés de la Rebecca, Robert Jenkins, fue cercenado de su oreja por el oficial Español de Aduanas, Juan León Fandiño, como castigo a sus contravenciones contrabandistas en Florida. Jenkins le hizo saber que similar suerte le estaría reservada al Rey de Inglaterra si viniera a visitar. Cuando estas noticias llegaron a Inglaterra el aspirante a Primer Ministro y miembro del Parlamento, Sir Edward Vernon, instigo al parlamento a declarar la guerra contra España en 1739. El fue nombrado Almirante y se le dio mando de atacar los dominios Españoles. Después de conquistar Portobelo, una pequeña fortaleza en lo que es hoy Panamá, con sólo seis barcos de guerra, Vernon estaba convencido de tomar Cartagena y todas sus riquezas para Inglaterra.
Vernon fue capaz de reunir y asegurar una masiva flota para esta aventura: 180 barcos. Más de 2000 cañones y más de 28000 hombres. Otros saqueos a Cartagena anteriormente fueron posibles con sólo 1000 hombres. De estos 2700 hombres fueron reclutados en las Colonias Norte Americanas, bajo el mando de un joven oficial llamado Lawrence Washington, medio hermano de George Washington. Vernon también enlisto 2000 macheteros Jamaiquinos. Las defensas de Cartagena eran minúsculas en comparación: 3000 soldados, algunos arqueros Indios nativos y seis barcos con su tripulación. Pero Vernon agrupaba tan grande armada que era imposible pasara desapercibida, y Cartagena se preparo para tan grande ataque, cuando la flota de Vernon llegó a las 9am el 13 de Marzo de 1741. El fuerte repleto de túneles y áreas de depósito, en las cuales los Españoles acumularon suficientes armas y comida para contener un prolongado ataque. El Vis rey Sebastián de Eslava y Don Blas de Lezo estaban a cargo de la defensa, pero eran sobrepasados en número. La población de Cartagena era de 20.000, con menos de 6000 hombres bajo armas.
Vernon desembarco sus hombres en la Isla de Tierrabomba y luego de disparar a salto de mata en el pequeño Castillo de San Luis. La entrada de la bahía esta resguardada por escolleras. O bajos, hechos bajo el agua por el hombre, y una gruesísima cadena entre los dos fuertes. Pero el Inglés fue capaz de romperla y extender un prolongado ataque a fuego por 16 días y sus noches, en un promedio de 62 rondas por hora. Demasiado para Don Blas de Lezo y su coronel de Naux para mantenerse por mucho. En vano intento por evitar la entrada de Vernon, los Españoles hundieron su último barco en la entrada de la bahía. Don Blas estaba en la primera línea del frente de acción, y fue herido en su muslo y único brazo, y forzado a refugiarse en la ciudad amurallada. Vernon entró en la bahía, enviando a Washington, y los Norte Americanos a tomarse el Convento de la Popa en la loma desde la cual se aprecia San Felipe, y descarga la artillería desboronando Cartagena. Seguro de su victoria, envió un mensaje a Inglaterra acerca de la caída de Cartagena. Las autoridades Inglesas, al recibir esta noticia, acuñaron monedas conmemorando la victoria.
Pero Don Blas no se daba por vencido. Replegado en el fuerte, repulsaban ataque sobre ataque. La bahía de Cartagena estaba repleta de cuerpos del enemigo: heridos, malaria, disentería, fueron minando los Ingleses. Don Blas era un veterano en tácticas de sitio. Los Jamaiquinos blandiendo sus machetes dejaron el asalto, siguiéndole la artillería Inglesa, ambos eran fácil presa para los Españoles desde sus estratégicas posiciones. El ataque fue retenido, y don Blas aprovecho la oportunidad, ordenando a sus 600 hombres restantes a un vencer o morir contra-ataque, que dejó 800 hombres muertos, 1000 tomados prisioneros, y los barcos de Vernon llenos de enfermos y heridos. Esta es la hora de gloria para Cartagena.
Las aspiraciones de Vernon de llegar a ser Primer Ministro de Inglaterra han desaparecido, perdiendo 18.000 hombres, cerca de la mitad debido a enfermedades, el resto por la superioridad militar Española. Cinco barcos de la flota Inglesa fueron quemados en el mar por falta de marineros para regresar a casa. Nunca los detalles de tan embarazosa derrota fueron divulgados. Los esfuerzos de Vernon serán recordados en las propiedades de la familia de Lawrence Washington en USA llamados Mount Vernon en su honor. Hoy, la población de Cartagena se aproxima al millón, y acoge embarcaciones navales extranjeras por los turistas con dólares o euros que ellos brindan. España no es más dominante, y no hay oro enviado con protección. El hombre que batía su espada con su mano izquierda, debido a que perdió su brazo derecho en la Batalla de Barcelona; sin una pierna que perdió en la Batalle de Gibraltar; y quien lleva un parche en su ojo izquierdo el que perdió en la Batalla de Toulon. Este ha sido el hombre que perdió su vida en la Batalla por Cartagena, la última de sus 23 campañas. Este hombre es Don Blas de Lezo.
Tomado de la Nacional Geographic. Facts stranger than fiction: the story of Don Blas de Lezo.By David Short.



Traducido al Español por Maria del Carmen Moreno.

69 comments:

  1. Lamentablemente no hablo la lengua de Shakespeare y no puedo leer esta entrada tuya del gran Blas de Lezo, el héroe de Cartagena de Indias.
    Saludos.

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  2. Buuffff que mala traducción, algunas cosas las entendí mal. Jajajaja, que pena de sólo ser parlante de la lengua dde Cervantes.

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  3. Juan, yo siento gran admiración de Don Blas de Lezo, un verdadero héroe no reconocido en España como tal, pero a quien en relidad mucho debemos. Si bien hubo abuso y excesos en la Conquista del Nuevo Mundo, que ese particular encanto de los Latinoaméricanos se debe a esa interesante fusión de razas y culturas que hoy tenemos, un saludo cordial.

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